Autonomous Republic of Crimea
The Crimea is one of the most magic pearls of Ukraine and its incomparable decoration. The territory of Crimean Autonomous Republic is 26,1 thousand square km. The Crimea borders with Kherson and Zaporizhzhya regions of Ukraine and with Krasnodar Region of the Russian Federation. The State frontier length is 821 km and it can be crossed in nine check points. Crimean Autonomous Republic is divided into 14 districts by administrative structure. The number of population of the Crimea is 2 018 400 people, including 1 265 900 people live in cities and 752 500 people in rural locality.
One of the major places in the economy of Crimean Autonomous Republic belongs to the industry, although only 17% of workers are employed here. In 1999 the industrial enterprises transferred 381.1 million hryvna (39.9%) in budgets of all levels as well as in 2000 – 540.6 million hryvna (42.6%), in 2001 – 613.8 million hryvna (43.9%) and in 2002 – 556 million hryvna (41.1%). For the first half-year of 2003 the production volume of industrial goods makes 1431 million hryvna and by comparison with the similar period of previous year its has been increased by 10.1% in comparable prices.
The industry of Crimean Autonomous Republic has the wide spectrum of types of economic activity, thus the share of extractive industry is 7.6% of total production volume as well as processing – 76.6% and production and distribution of electric power, heat, gas and water – 15.8%.
The enterprises of Crimean food industry produce meat products, animal butter, dairy products, cheeses, oil, can foods, confectionary, groats and flour, alcoholic beverage, tobacco wares and others.
The Crimean light industry is represented by 15 enterprises, which produce cotton fabrics, hosiery, leather goods, knitting and sewing wares, leather shoe, furniture and others.
The chemical industry provides 20.6% of republican general industrial production volume. The Crimean chemical enterprises as SJSC "Titan" and JSC "Crimean Soda Plant" are unique in Ukraine and CIS as well as competitive on the European and world markets. Following directions of activity are perspective for chemical industry such as introduction of energy conservation and ecological technologies, extension of production volumes of calcium soda, synthetic detergents and chemical detergents, polymeric pipes for gas pipelines of underground gasket, production arrangement of goods on the basis of iodine.
The JSC "Polivtor" is the sole enterprise on recycling wastes of polymers in Southern Ukraine.
The production of glassware for providing demands of Crimean food industry, and also renewal of production of artistic glass and souvenirs from glass is perspective direction for glass industry of the Crimea. The machine-building industry is represented by 12 research institutions and 67 enterprises. Its share in the general industrial production volume of Crimean AR made 16% in 2002.
17.3% of working population is employed in Crimean agriculture. There were 370 agroindustrial enterprises in 2002, including 335 non state, from them 121 production cooperative societies, 107 limited liability companies, 50 private enterprises, 27 public corporation of open type, 16 public corporation of closed type and 14 other non state enterprises. That year 646.6 thousand tons of wheat was harvested as well as 377,9 thousand tons of barley, 4.8 thousand tons of rye, 17.5 thousand tons of oat, 1.5 thousand tons of corn, 49.4 thousand tones of rice, 150.6 thousand tons of potato, 159.5 thousand tons of vegetables and 84 thousand tons of grape. By results of the first half-year of 2003 the total number of poultry has been increased by 9% as well as sheep by 10%, production of meat by comparison with similar period of 2002 by 20.5% and eggs by 2% in all categories of facilities.
The agroindustrial complex of Crimean Autonomous Republic continues to be reformed: 611 new structures were created on the base of 220 collective agricultural enterprises.
11,3 thousand enterprises, 1986 farm facilities and 78.2 thousand private businessmen function in small business of Crimean AR economy. Over 163 thousand persons are employed in republic small business or 27.3% of workers of all industries of Crimean economy. The share of products of small business in the production volume makes 13% as well as share of incomes in budgets of all levels – 18%.
The development of small business promotes the growth of business activity, and consequently strengthening of foreign economic activity. The republic extends the volumes of export and decreases the volumes of import and barter. This tendency is observed since 1999. Today the dyes and pigments prevail in the commodity structure of export as well as products of electric machine-building, non organic chemistry, ferrous metals, copper and its wares, fish and wine. The most exporters are follows as JSC "Crimean Soda Plant", SJSC "Titan", JSC "Bromine", JSC "Selma Firm", LLC "Soyuz-Viktan" and JSC "Massandra". The products of Crimean enterprises are known in 132 countries of the world, in particular in Russia, Austria, Turkey and USA.
The important place in the foreign trade turnover is occupied by the export of services. The main enterprises of this sphere are Kerch, Yalta and Feodosia sea ports and establishments of resort-tourist sphere.
The transport infrastructure is well-developed in the Crimea. The motor-car communication (freight and passenger transportations) is carried out in city, suburban, interurban and international directions. 800 settlements of the Crimea are covered by bus communication or 93 percents of their number. The State International Airport Simferopol functions round-the-clock and can take the aircrafts of any class. The airport can serve 14-15 thousand flights. Between the airport, capital of the Crimea and South Coast there are trolleybus, buss and taxi routes. The passenger transportation is provided also by the Airport Kerch as well as freight by Dzhankoy.
Simferopol has railway communication with many large junctions of Ukraine and Russia. Four commercial ports is marine gate of the Crimea such as Yevpatoria, Kerch, Feodosia and Yalta, besides Kerch is connected by ferriage with Krasnodar Region of the Russian Federation. The ports are modern highly-mechanized enterprises on handling general and bulk cargo. No doubt the Crimea is a very attractive object for investing of capital in its economy. The investment activity is regulated by the law adopted by the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine at the end of 2000 yet. Pursuant to this law the special regime of investment activity, which the enterprises of certain industries will be subject to, has been introduced for 30-years term on the republic’s territory . Today the Crimea is one of ten regions of Ukraine, to which investors give advantage. In the first half-year of 2003 the investments in the fixed assets were by 23.5% higher than for proper period of 2002.
The scientific-technical and research activity in the Crimea is conducted by 45 research, project and design institutes and bureaus, experimental stations, independent research institutions and branches. The specialists of various profiles are trained in 14 higher educational establishments of the Crimea of ІІІ-ІV levels of accreditation, where over 52 thousand students study. Over 274 thousand young Crimean get secondary education in 641 schools.
The system of health protection in Crimean Autonomous Republic is represented by the wide network of regional, city and district hospitals, diagnostic centers, specialized clinics and out-patient clinics, stations and separations of first-aid and others. The population of the Crimea and guests are served by 8370 doctors and 18800 medium medical staff.
The resort-recreation potential of the Crimea is conditioned by varieties of natural landscapes – from steppes in the north to the Crimean Mountain covered by forests in the south part. Over 90% of recreation objects are concentrated on the narrow three-kilometre seaside stripe. 26 deposits of cure mud and brine, more than 100 springs of mineral waters of different chemical composition are known. Today there are over 600 resort and health establishments in the Crimea. The sanatoriums and resort hotels with medical treatment make 28% of these establishments and are located mainly on the South Cost of the Crimea. All of them are specialized, depending on the medical features of locality. The market cost of mineral base in the Crimea, its beaches and seaside land plots is very high.
The tourist industry is very perspective. The presence of proper resources enables to develop the untraditional forms of tourism such as speleological, equestrian, bicycle, mounting-foot, research, hang-gliding, hunting rounds, helicopter excursions, walks on yachts, diving, and research and car tours.
The cultural life of the Crimea is caused by the necessity of leisure organization for holiday-makers. Many festivals and competitions are conducted in the Crimea, for example Koreada, Bilya Chornogo Morya, Zirky Planety and Artekivski Zori. Six theatres, 682 clubs and houses of culture, 855 libraries, 18 museums, schools of aesthetical education for children and other structures function year-round.