Kyiv land is streched in the centre of Ukraine, on both picturesque banks of the mighty Dnieper River. The archaeological sights of Trypillya, Chernyakhiv, Lebedivska and Sofiyivska cultures testify to ancient history of this land and the settlements of the region gave the proper names to them.
In the first millennium of AD the core of Polyany tribe populated the middle flow of the Dnieper River between the Ros and Irpen rivers was formed on the territory of present Kyiv land. Other Slavic tribes were united round it. The process was completed by formation of the Kyiv Rus State with the center in Kyiv, which was legally named "by the mother of Russian towns". The development way of Kyiv and Kyiv Region was the thorny.
Kyiv Region was established in 1932. Its territory is 28.4 thousand square km (4.7% of the total Ukrainian area). The number of population is 1810,5 thousand people (3.7% of the total number of Ukraine). The urban population makes 58.9% as well as rural – 41.1% of the total number. Kyiv Region borders with Zhytomyr, Vinnytsya, Cherkasy, Poltava and Chernihiv regions, and also with Gomel Region of the Republic Byelorussia. Kyiv Region comprises 25 districts and 24 cities, including 11 cities of regional submission, 30 settlements and 1220 villages.
The landscape of Kyiv land is mainly flat. The northern part of the region lies within the Polissya lowland as well as south-western, western and center – within the Dnieper sublimity and eastern (left-bank) – the Dnieper lowland. The ravines and beams are crossed in southern part of the region's territory. Kyiv Region lies within the areas of mixed forests and forest-steppe. The ground is mainly chernozem-meadow and forestry-loamy (over 60% – agricultural lands). The climate is moderately continental and soft with sufficient humidity. The middle temperature of January is -6 °С and July +19°С. The annual amount of precipitations makes 570-610 mm.
The bowels of Kyiv land are rich in minerals. Following minerals are extracted in Kyiv land such as peat, brown coal, sand for production of glass, limestone, brick and tile clay, granite and gneiss. There is the amber in Kyiv land.
Kyiv Region enters the top ten highly developed industrial regions of Ukraine. Taking into account the features of placing of productive forces on the region's territory there are three economic sub-districts such as Polissya, Kyiv suburban and South Forest-Steppe.
The machine-building and metal-working, food, electroenergy, light, chemical and petrochemical, woodworking, cellulose-paper and construction materials are leading branches of the industry in Kyiv Region. The enterprises of the regional machine-building are specialized on production and repair of machines for agriculture, in particular for stock-raising and fodder-production, chemical equipment, excavators, melioration machines, equipment for food industry, household and other appliances (household lamps, refrigerators, electrical engineering and heating devices, air conditioners and others).
The basis of the regional industrial potential is made by almost four hundred large and medium enterprises; following leading enterprises have the national value such as Trypillya TPP, Brovary Works of Powder Metallurgy, largest in Europe the Kyiv Cardboard-Paper Integrated Works (Obukhiv), and also well-known beyond Ukrainian boundaries the manufacturer of tires – the Joint-Stock Company "Rosava" (Bila Tserkva) as well as the manufacturer of excavators – the Joint-Stock Company "Boreks" (Borodyanka settlement), chemical equipment – JSC "Chervony Zhovten" (Fastiv) and the like.
The enterprises of the region take strong positions in Ukraine on production of food stuffs. The JSC "Yagotyn Creamery" is the leader on production of high-quality dairy products as well as on production of meat-sausage products – the JSC "Kyiv Meat Processing and Packing Plant" in Vishnevy and LLC "Ideks" (Yagotyn).
The intensive construction is lasting in Kyiv Region now: both housing and industrial. The important role in this process is played by the construction complex incorporating more than 300 building organizations and enterprises of construction industry.
Kyiv Region has highly developed agricultural production. There are more than 2000 agricultural enterprises including peasant (farm) in Kyiv Region. The area of agricultural lands (by all categories of facilities) makes 1675.9 thousand ha, or 4% of the total Ukrainian lands. In the structure of agricultural lands the plough-land occupies 81.6% as well as pastures – 8.1%, hayfields – 6.9%, perennial plantations – 2.4% and fallow lands – 1.0%.
The leading role in plant growing is played by cereals and fodders crops. The peasants of Kyiv Region grow wheat, maize, sugar beets and potatoes. The vegetable-growing (including closed ground), stock-raising that is specialized on production of milk, meat and eggs are intensively developed.
The practice of management activity of last years confirms the expedience of incorporating of facilities in the most effective organizational structures. These structures are follows as Agricultural Farm "Ros" of Bila Tserkva District, "Svitanok" of Vasylkiv District, State Stock-Rising Plant "Ploskivsky" of Brovary District and Agricultural Complex "Pushcha-Vodytsya". These facilities have the high indexes of productivity of cereals (50-60 c/ha), sugar beets (650-720 c/ha) and milk (6020 kg per cow).
Kyiv Region is the motherland of fundamental scientific researches. The world recognition was won by selection developments of the Myronivka Scientific-Research Institute of Selection and Seeding of Wheat named after V. M. Remesla. Following sorts of wheat as Myronivska 264, Myronivska 808, Myronivska Anniversary and Mriya-1 are well-known abroad.
The scientific bases of intensification of technologies of gardening, berry-growing, seedling, saving and processing of fruit and berry products, selection of fruit and berry crops with application of traditional methods and modern properties of the applied genetics and gene engineering are developed by the Institute of Gardening of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences. The winter-proof, not affecting by scab sorts of pears (Etude, Striyska and Christian), apple-trees of intensive type (Askold and Teremok), apple-trees of column forms (Vertical and Tantsivnytsya), new sorts of blackberry with complex oligogenic firmness to illnesses and wreckers deserve the special attention.
The Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture develops novelties and put it into operation.
The Institute of Potato-Growing of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences is the leading establishment of scientific-methodical center on problems of potato-growing in Ukraine. Kyiv Region has the dense network of railways and motor-car ways with the length of 800 and 8200 km respectively. The region has railway communication with all regions of Ukraine and countries of CIS. The international expresses in all countries of Eastern Europe, and also motorways of international value pass through its territory such as Lviv-Kharkiv, Lviv-Moscow, Saint Petersburg-Odessa and others.
The biggest air gate of Ukraine is located in Kyiv Region also. The Airport Borispol provides regular flights in more than 30 countries of the world and takes aircrafts of 25 foreign airlines. Except for this air-port, there are two air fields in the region, which can take cargo transport aircrafts.
The main gas pipeline "Siberia-Western Europe" passes through Kyiv Region, therefore the dense network of gas pipelines was created in the region. Besides, many fuel pipelines (petrol and duel diesel) are laid through territory of Kyiv Region.
The regional subjects of management activity perform active foreign economic operation with partners from 99 countries of the world. The enterprises and organizations of the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey and Byelorussia are the most exporters of Kyiv Region production. The tires for cars and agricultural equipment, rubber wares, cardboard and paper, commodities of light industry, production of machine-building, production of food and processing industry, wares from metal and other goods make commodity structure of export deliveries.
The most investments in the regional economy were made by investors from Netherlands (71.3% of the general volume of investments), Great Britain, USA and Germany. Following industries of the regional economy as food industry, domestic trade, chemical and petrochemical industry, medical industry, machine-building and metal-working industry, agriculture, other industries and spheres of activity have the special interest for investors. Kyiv Region has great cultural-art potential, in particular, the Kyiv Regional Ukrainian Music and Drama Theatre named after Panas Saksaganskiy is located in Bila Tserkva. Kyiv Region is rich in museums. The most known are follows as Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky, Monument-Museum of Kyiv Liberation with the Diorama "Battle for Kyiv. Lyutizh Bridgehead. 1943" (Novi Petrivtsi, Vyshhorod District) and many others.
Kyiv land since ancient times is famous by works of decorative-trade art, created by talented masters. There are famous names of Catherine Bilokur in the world, Maria Pryymachenko, Hanna Veres and Ivan Prykhodka.
The Park "Oleksandria" in Bila Tserkva is the prominent sight of landscape-gardening architecture of Ukraine and the Park in Kagarlyk – the sight of middle of the ХІХ century deserves special attention.
The hardworking and talented people create glory of the region and Ukraine for many centuries.
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